There are two main types of cervical cancer. The first type grows
in the skin lining the cervix. The second type grows from the lining
of the mucous glands of the cervix. Most cervical cancers are associated
with infection by a virus called a wart virus.
Cervical cancer has two main ways of spreading: local invasion
and lymphatic spread. The spread of cancer to different parts of the
body is called metastasis.
Local invasion means that the tumour grows into the upper vagina,
the uterus and the tissue in the pelvis next to the uterus. In advanced
cancer, the tumour may grow into the bladder at the front of the cervix
and into the rectum at the back. It may also block the ureters, the
tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder, causing kidney
Lymphatic spread occurs when cancerous cells move through the
lymph fluid channels and are trapped by lymph glands, where the cells
can multiply and form tumours.